Thursday, June 21, 2012

Dale's Cone Experience

Years  ago an educator  named Edgar Dale ,often cited as the father of modern media in education, developed from his experience in teaching and his observations of learners the "cone of experience”. The cone's utility in selecting instructional resources and activities is as practical today as when Dale created it. The Cone of Experience is a visual device to aid teachers in the selection of instructional media. The Cone is based on the movement from concrete experiences to abstract experiences
Edgar Dale’s Cone of Experience :
The Edgar Dale Cone of Experience summarizes how learners retain information.
    We Remember
        20% of what we HEAR
        30% of what we SEE
        50% of what we SEE & HEAR
        80% of what we SAY
        90% of what we SAY & DO
How the cone works?
According to Dale’s research, the least effective method at the top, involves learning from information presented through verbal symbols, i.e., listening to spoken words.  The most effective methods at the bottom, involves direct, purposeful learning experiences, such as hands-on or field experience.  Direct purposeful experiences represents reality or the closet things to real, everyday life.
When simply spoken to in a presentation we retain 30% of what is said. If this information is also presented in a visual format, our retention level of this information increases to 50%. When we also actively receive and participate in the presentation, retention increases to 70%. Finally, retention is maximized to 90% when we practice what we've learned.
   The opportunity for a learner to use a varietyor several senses (sight, smell, hearing,touching, movement) is considered in the cone. Direct experience allows us to use all senses.As you move up the cone, fewer senses areinvolved at each level.By using  action-learning techniques result in up to 90% retention.  People learn best when they use perceptual learning styles. Perceptual learning styles are sensory based.  The more sensory uses possible in interacting with a resource, the better chance that many students can learn from it. According to Dale, instructors should design instructional activities that build upon more real-life experiences.
We concluded that when students "do the real thing," "simulate" the real thing, or teach others what they have learned, the retention rate is about 90% of what was taught.

Dales’ cone of experience And ICT
Dales’ cone of experience is a tool to help instructors make decisions about resources and activities where can be supported by using ICT. The cone may help us to choose the instructional materials that are most appropriate for the particular topic we wish to teach. The Cone can help us to understand these relationships between media and the messages they convey. It suggests, in fact, that various instructional materials differ in the degree of sensory experience they are able to provide. Our selection of instructional materials, therefore, will depend on the amount of sensory experience we wish to provide for a particular topic of our lesson. And the Cone can help us "place" a teaching method; it can help us select the way of communicating most suited to the experience we wish to convey. By using ICT, teacher are able to design instructional activities. By using computer which is connected with internet, both teacher or students are able to experience learning from the abstract one (reading text, pictures) into the concrete one (video). So, ICT can be used as the media that supports in designing instructional activities either for the abstract or concrete one.

Wednesday, June 13, 2012


Collaborative learning is a teaching method in which students learn together while exploring a significant question or completing a significant project.  Dillenbourg      (1999) describes collaborative learning as a “situation in which particular forms of interaction among      people    are   expected   to   occur,   which    would     trigger   learning   mechanisms”. Collaborative learning (usually called cooperative learning at the elementary and secondary school levels) is a well-established group work method that provides a useful alternative to teacher-fronted classes. Its various techniques follow a certain number of set rules. Instructors who use the method believe that learning is essentially a social process, that their role is not simply to impart their own knowledge to their students, but that the acquisition of knowledge comes mostly through discussion and negotiation. The instructor's role is that of a facilitator, organizer, and occasionally of a resource person. The method also implies a belief in the democratic process: all team members are equal in their pursuit of a common goal and their contributions are all equally valuable.
The benefit of Collaborative Learning
o    Develops higher level thinking skills
o    Promotes student-faculty interaction and familiarity
o    Increases student retention and builds self esteem in students
o    Creates an environment of active, involved, exploratory learning
o    Uses a team approach to problem solving while maintaining individual accountability
o    Encourages diversity understanding and encourages student responsibility for learning
o    Stimulates critical thinking and helps students clarify ideas through discussion and debate
o    Enhances self management skills
o    Fits in well with the constructivist approach
o    Students develop responsibility for each other
o    Builds more positive heterogeneous relationships
o    Encourages alternate student assessment techniques
o    Fosters and develops interpersonal relationships
o    Modelling problem solving techniques by students' peers
o    Students are taught how to criticize ideas, not people
o    Sets high expectations for students and teachers
o    Students stay on task more and are less disruptive
o    Promotes innovation in teaching and classroom techniques
o    Classroom anxiety is significantly reduced
o    Test anxiety is significantly reduced

Collaborative Learning and ICT
   The development        of  learning    with   ICT   has   evolved    from    software supporting     students’ individual learning based on mechanical drills to more advanced micro-worlds, cognitive tools    and   learning    environments.   Especially    the   advantages     of  ICT    for  supporting students’   collaborative   learning   have   broken   through;   different   ICT   solutions   provide tools    for  collaboration     both   in  the  classroom     setting   and   on   distance    courses.   Since the end of 1960s, the ways to use ICT for supporting learning have changed along with the evolving of theories   of   learning   and   developing   technologies.   Development     has   advanced   from software supporting students’ individual learning based on mechanical drills to more developed   cognitive   tools     and   collaborative   learning   environments.   ICT   in   teaching   has   manifested   in   various   forms   from traditional computer   labs   and   presentation   technologies   to   online   learning   environments,   social  software      and    personal     learning    environments.       Also,    the   development       of   mobile technologies       has   provided     new    flexible   ways    to   use   ICT   for  supporting      learning . The advantages of ICT have especially been noted in regard of supporting   students’   collaborative   learning   activities.  Different   ICT solutions   provide tools   for   supporting collaborative   learning   in   face-to- face    teaching    situations , and   within    distance learning .  It   has   even   been   proposed   that   ICT   will   transform schools into   knowledge   building . Collaborative learning with ICT without limiting  the technologies and software used for supporting collaboration.
The   development        of   ICT   in   education   indicates   a   connection   between collaborative learning  and  ICT.  The assumption   is   that   integration   of   ICT   into   teaching   demands   teaching   and   learning methods based on constructivism and collaboration. The same   requirement   also   shows   in   online   learning   (Harasim,   2000).   According   to   SyhJong     (2006),   web-based      learning     environments       are   based    on   constructivist     and collaborative approaches to learning, for example the Moodle learning environment is designed      to “create  online  courses  with  a  focus  on  interaction  and  collaborative construction  of  contents”  (Wikipedia,  2010).  The  link  between  the  use  of  ICT  in education and collaborative learning practices has created expectations of that the use of ICT will eventually change teaching practices in schools. Dillenbourg      (1999) describes collaborative learning as a “situation in which particular forms of interaction among      people    are   expected   to   occur,   which    would     trigger   learning   mechanisms”.  
My Opinion:
The connection between collaborative learning and ICT is via  ICT-tools - such as computer supported collaborative environments (asynchronous discussion groups) and mindtools (Logo Microworlds® and Lego-Logo®) , the students learn collaboratively exchange and share knowledge. This results in output (processed information) and input (information to be processed). This input- output exchange can be influenced by the ICT-tools. The impact of collaboration in computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environments on study performance and the nature and quality of knowledge construction in Collaborative Learning and ICT.  The use of ICT supports the collaborative learning.

Cooperative Learning

Cooperative learning is a type of collaborative learning in which students work together on specific structured activities to learn a concept. The instructor holds each student accountable for his individual work, and the instructor also evaluates the group as a whole. According to the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (1998), "cooperative learning is a generic term for various small group interactive instructional procedures.” This learning concept allows small groups of students to work together to help themselves and their teammates to learn. Students may also be assigned to a group to work on long-term classroom goals. These groups are called base groups. "Base groups are cooperative groups that last the entire semester or school year; they provide a means through which students can clarify assignments for one another, help one another with class notes, and provide one another with a general sense of support and belonging in the classroom" (Ormrod, 2004, p. 413). Students work together on common tasks or learning activities that are best handled through group work. These are characteristics of cooperative learning:
•     Students work together in small groups containing two to five members.   
•    Students are positively interdependent.
•    Activities are structured so that students need each other to accomplish their common tasks or learning activities.
•    Students are individually accountable or responsible for their work or learning (University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, 1998). 
     Cooperative learning groups can consist of two to five students, but groups of three to four are also effective. Classes can be divided up into several groups. The groups should contain high achievers and low achievers. These common features enhance the effectiveness of cooperative learning groups:
•    Students work in small, teacher-assigned groups.   
•    Groups have one or more common goal toward which to work.  
•    Students are given clear guidelines about how to behave.
•    Group members depend on one another for their success.
•    A structure is provided to encourage productive learning behaviors.
•     The teacher serves primarily as a resource and monitor.
•    Students are individually accountable for their achievement. 
•    Students are rewarded for group success.  
•    At the completion of an activity, each group evaluates its effectiveness (Ormrod, 2004, p. 414-15).

There are five basic elements in cooperative learning that when structured, helps positive efforts and helps the cooperative learning group achieve their goal.
1.) Positive interdependence:  This will be achieved only when all individuals of the group feel that they cannot succeed unless everyone succeeds. “If there is no       positive interdependence, there is no cooperation.”
2.) Promotive interaction:  Student’s need to do work where they help each other understand by encouraging, supporting and helping one another.
3.) Individual and group accountability:  The group should be responsible for achieving its goal and each student should be responsible for his or her share of work.
4.) Teaching students the required interpersonal and small group skills: Social skills must be taught . “ Leadership, decision-making, trust-building, communication, and conflict-management skills empower students to manage both teamwork and task work successfully”
 5.)  Group processing:  Group members can discuss between each other how well or how bad they are achieving their goals within their group.  Groups need to describe what proceedings can be changed in order to have a successful working relationship.
Importance of Cooperative Learning
     When activities are designed and structured appropriately, cooperative learning can be very effective. According to Ormrod (2004), “students of all ability levels show higher academic achievement; females, members of minority groups, and students at risk for academic failure are especially likely to show increased achievement” (p. 417).  This learning concept can promote advanced level of thinking skills:
•    Students essentially think aloud.
•    Students are able model various learning and problem solving strategies for one another.
•    Students are able to develop a greater meta cognitive awareness as a result.
Usage and Applications
      Cooperative learning allows the teacher to actively involve students in discovering knowledge through a new learning process. The learning process takes place through dialogue among the students. Dialogue can be achieved through formulated questions, discussions, explanations, debates, writings, and brainstorming during class (Institute for Dynamic Educational Advancement (IDEA), 2010).  Projects that require a wide range of talents and skills can be assigned to each group member,  contributing to the group’s overall success (Ormrod, 2004, p. 417). Assigning different roles to different students and providing scripts for interaction is another  application of cooperative learning.

Advantages / Disadvantages
     There are many advantages to cooperative learning. According to Ormrod (2004), "Students have a higher self-efficacy about their chances of being successful, express more intrinsic motivation to learn school subject matter, participate more actively in classroom activities, and exhibit more self-regulated learning" (p. 417).  This allows students to engage in prosocial behaviors, perspectives of others, divide task equally, resolve interpersonal conflicts, and provide encouragement and support to each other. Students will have an increased number of friendships with racial groups, ethnic groups, and persons with disabilities. Cooperative learning concepts provide an array of learning tasks and are preferred over competitive and individualized learning.  A number of schools are adopting this style of classroom learning.  Cooperative learning concept is effective and allows students to tutor each other on information being studied (North Central Regional Education Laboratory, 2004).
     Disadvantages of cooperative learning are that “students may sometimes be more interested in achieving a group reward with the least possible effort and so will focus more on getting the “right” answer than on ensuring that all group members understand the subject matter being studied” (Ormrod, 2004, p. 417). If one student does more talking and work, that student has the tendency to learn more than the others in the group. If incorrect information, strategies, or methods are suggested by one student, then the whole group is at risk.  It is important for the teacher to follow the group’s discussions and lesson plans. The teacher should provide structure and guidance to promote the utmost learning and achievement possibilities (Ormrod, 2004). Operant conditioning involves reinforcement that results in a behavioral change that is based on the consequences that follow the behavior. In cooperative learning, a student and the group learn because they are rewarded by information learned and the information they provided to the rest of the group (College of Saint Benedict Saint John’s University, 2009).
     The social cognitive theorist point of view suggests that students are able to perform tasks with greater self-efficacy when they know they are helping other group members. Cognitive learning is when mental association permanently changes due to the experiences and results in an internal change which can not be observed. Alberta Bandura evolved behaviorism and cognitive theories. Social learning emphasizes the beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. Self-regulation is incorporated in this theory, and its ability to maintain one’s own behavior with internalized standards (College of Saint Benedict Saint John’s University, 2009). In cooperative learning, the teacher would provide the stimulus for the group to promote self- instruction, self-motivation, self-reinforcement, and self-imposed stimulus control.
 My opinion:
Cooperative Learning is the instructional use of small groups so that students work together to maximize their own and each other learning. Cooperative learning groups work best when they meet the following criteria:  “ Groups should be heterogeneous and, at least at the beginning, should be small, perhaps limited to two to six members” . There were more advantages than disadvantages in Cooperative learning.  Cooperative learning can be an extraordinary teaching strategy if utilized correctly.  Cooperative learning gives students motivation and interest where other teaching strategies wouldn’t.  It helps build an individual’s competition streak because the student always wants to be the facilitator instead of the follower. Students that are normally shy can overcome their shyness in a cooperative learning group.  Students can sometimes explain things better to a group of students that a teacher cannot.  A student can make it more interesting or more understandable because they would probably use words students their own age are accustomed to listening.  Motivation and group work are the key words in making cooperative learning a success in your classroom , so reach out and make your classroom a cooperative learning class.                             

The Relationship Between Learning Theories and ICT

The advances of technologies nowadays have changed the learning environments for teaching and learning and the way teacher teaches and student learns. The new paradigm of learning is described in term of the progress from old-ICTs to new ICTs in three stages of traditional e-learning, blended e-learning and contemporary virtual e-learning. The technological advancements in e-learning are linked with the theories of learning like behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism. The e-Learning is going through a paradigm shift wherein teachers and students have departed from passive mode to open independent learning environment.
Behaviorism is learning theory where learners learn through stimuli and response where teacher as the expert and learners as the passive reciepient. Learning occurs through the “instructor presenting the learner with the required stimuli along with the required behavioral responses within an effective reinforcement regime. The degree of learning is assessed through observable measures such as tests, assignments and examinations”. The development was based on the behaviouristic theory of learning suggesting that learning goals must be divided into smaller pieces, i.e. smaller tasks that students accomplish. Accomplishing these smaller tasks will eventually lead to achieving the original learning goal. ICT provides students with a Computer-Assisted Instruction that gives instant feedback and control over separate tasks. Typically, software has been so  called   drill-and-practice   software.  Computer-Assisted Instruction is the example of the model of computer called computer as tutee.
The cognitive view of learning, like the behaviourist view, sees knowledge as given and absolute. Many of the information processing models of teaching and learning are   based   on   the   cognitive   view   of   learning. The cognitive gives priority to the cognitive powers of an individual. For example, the ‘learning-style’ of every learner indicates his/her cognitive trends. The design of computer-based learning environments has undergone a paradigm shift, moving students away from instruction that was considered to promote technical rationality grounded in objectivism, to the application of computers to create cognitive tools utilized in constructivist environments (Young, 2003). In cognitivism, ICT provides computer as tutor  referring   to   development   based   on theories     of  artificial  intelligence    (AI)  and    theories   of  information      processing.    The assumption was   that   it   is   possible to design software that emulates   the   thinking   and problem solving of domain experts. The idea was that these “intelligent” technologies can   also   work   as   skilled   teachers   or   tutors,   providing   every   student    with   personal tutors   that   follow   the   progress   of   learning   and   provide   feedback   and   support   when needed.      

The constructivist theories of learning dominate today and propagate that learning is achieved by the active construction of knowledge supported by various perspectives within meaningful contexts and social interactions (Oliver, 2002). These environments create engaging and content-relevant experiences by utilizing ICTs and resources to support unique learning goals and knowledge construction. The constructivists believe that there is no single version of reality, rather a multitude of realities situated within each learner. As such, learning is dependent upon the “learner’s ability to analyze, synthesize and evaluate information to create meaningful, personalized knowledge.
The strengths of constructivism lie in its emphasis on learning as a process of personal understanding and the development of meaning where learning is viewed as the construction of meaning rather than as the memorization of facts. Learning approaches using contemporary ICTs provide many opportunities for constructivist learning through their student centered environments based on their context. Given, that knowledge is constantly advancing; the design and development principles need to be aligned with teacher and students emerging requirements. The current trend in e-Learning is to provide cognitive tools, which can be adapted for intellectual partnerships among teachers and students and facilitate critical thinking and higher-order learning
 In contrast to traditional classrooms where teachers used a linear model and one-way communication, the modern learning is becoming more personalized, student-centric, non-linear and learner-directed .
     The development of ICT in education based on the constructivism has been described as “Computer   Supported   Collaborative   Learning   (CSCL)   Paradigm. CSCL   paradigm   places   the   mind   within   socio-cultural environment.   In  addition  to  changes   in  theories   of   learning,   also  the   development   of technologies   provided   new possibilities   for collaborative   learning   with ICT.   Probably the   best   known   example   of   new   technologies   for   supporting   students’   collaborative learning   and   knowledge   building   was   the   Computer   Supported   Intentional   Learning Environment        (CSILE)    which     provided     tools  for  supporting      students’    collaborative knowledge   building.   Later,   especially   with   the   development   of   the   Internet,   several different   online   environments   (Moodle,   FLE,   Blackboard,   Verkkosalkku)   that   can   be used  for  supporting  collaborative  learning  have  emerged.  The  aim  of  ICT  was  to support      students’     collaborative      work,    sharing     and    explicating     ideas    and    unique knowledge         structures,    to   provide     a  means      for  communication         and    inquiry     and collaborative creations of knowledge.


The journey from behaviorism to constructivism also characterizes the change in the way students acquire knowledge and skills. Objectivism transmits knowledge from teacher to student; cognitive constructivism gives negotiated knowledge, while social constructivism provides an environment where learners harvest knowledge through self-controlled learning. E-Learning encompasses a continuum of integrated educational technologies.

Transmitted  knowledge  (traditional/objectivist)

Traditional e-Learning programs are “didactic in approach - a form of transmitted knowledge with passive acceptance of well-cooked teacher’s knowledge. Transmission refers to one-way communication, teacher as the communicator and students as the passive reciepient such as, radio-transmission. Radio-listeners are on the receiving-end with the broadcaster in full control of whatever is transmitted.

Negotiated knowledge (blended learning– objectivist + cognitivism)

The research tells us that by the 1990s e-Learning began to be supplemented by new media, particularly e-Mail and discussion groups/forums. For example, the existing e-Learning models of course ware were accompanied by a discussion forum where participants could read and post messages to involve in mutual support and debate – a kind of “negotiated knowledge (Gray et al., 2003).”

Harvested  knowledge  (constructivism)

Soon after 1990s, Lemke (1993) predicted that “very soon all the libraries of the world will be one virtual library, all the databases on every subject will be available through a common interface and they will contain not just numbers and texts, but every visual and auditory form of information.” The contemporary e-Learning environments are loaded with very powerful digital models and devices particularly, the internet, which has revolutionized the way people, used to interact, exchange messages, teach and learn. The web is increasingly equipped with millions of web-pages, site-archives, portals, databases and much more for ascertaining a kind of “harvested-knowledge” where learners can learn by themselves by constructing or harvesting knowledge (Gray et al., 2003). At the moment, e-Learning is facilitated by web technologies and delivered through end-user computing, which creates interconnectivity between teachers, students and information thereby creating opportunities for social learning approaches (Hvorecký et al., 2005).

In recent years, it has been recognized that e-Learning is not merely another medium for the transmission of knowledge but that it changes the relationship between the teacher or trainer and learner. It requires new skills, competencies and attitudes amongst those planners, managers, teachers and trainers who are going to design and develop materials and support learners online (Gray et al., 2003). Social software tools like blogs, wikis,social-bookmarking etc offer fields of knowledge to harvest according to the requirements of the users (teachers and learners) (Dalsgaard, 2006; Klamma et al., 2007). Because of the internet, learners have access to virtually unlimited information. Web-based learning is worldwide accessible, low in maintenance, secure, platform-independent, current and accommodates various learning styles because now e-Learning can be delivered to the learners easily, in an individualized manner (Manochehr, 2007).

My opinion:

Learning is bringing the shifts from linear to hypermedia learning, from instruction to construction and discovery, from teacher-centered to learner-centered education, from absorbing material to learning how to navigate and how to learn, from school to life long learning (LLL), from one-size-fits-all to customized learning, from learning as torture to learning as fun and from the teacher as transmitter to the teacher as facilitator. The implementation of current pedagogies is students will be more active and the role of the teacher will become that of a facilitator rather than a transmitter of information .The transition from objectivism to constructivism happens from transmitted to harvested knowledge, traditional e-Learning to virtual learning and old technologies to new gadgets. The transitions happen in the e-Learning applications is passing through three broader phases:

1.    Traditional e-Learning (behaviorism): Using old technologies (that is, email) to acquire transmitted knowledge through objectivist and behaviorist modes of pedagogy and learning with one-way communication from teacher to student.

2.    Blended e-Learning (cognitivism): Most of the institutions particularly in developing countries are passing through the mid-phase of blended e-Learning with a mix of both the old and new technologies (that is, chatting and discussion forums/groups). Both one-way and two-way communication becomes prevalent.

3. Virtual   learning (constructivism):   When  there  is  high level of collaboration between all the learners. There is group learning but in a highly individualized teaching and learning environments. Through personalization and integration technologies, every individual user can customize the technologies with one-to-many and many-to-many communication links, which are active and alive

Sunday, May 6, 2012

Cone's Dale Experience and The Relationship with ICT

Dale’s cone of experience is a learning processes model developed by Edgar  Dale from his teaching experience and observation. According to the cone, the least effective method is at the top which from what we are read . By reading, the learners’ capability to remember is 10%, 20% by hearing,  30% by seeing, 50% by  seeing and watching. Those are create the abstract experiences. Furthermore, learners will retain 70% information of what they say and write. However, the most effective method is at the bottom which from what we are do and the retention is up to 90%.  Learners retain knowledge best when they are doing things directly which  allow them to get the direct or concrete  experience. Because from concrete experience, they will use all of their senses. So as a teacher, we must consider of this kind of thing that learners learn best by doing the direct experiences. At consequence, teacher should design activities in learning process in such a way  for students to get the  real-life experiences. Because of that, teacher can use ICT as a media to create a concrete experience in teaching and learning process for their student. ICT can facilitate a greater access to the real experiences for learning by using computer, internet, video, software and etc. For example: To teach pronunciation, teacher can provide a pronunciation video of native speaker to be watched by students  which  can be easily accessed and downloaded by using internet and it can be more real compare to teacher pronounce by her/him self.

Thursday, May 3, 2012

The Distinction Between Cooperative and Collaborative Learning

Cooperative learning is a learning process of working together structured by teacher  to finish  the given task. The teacher designs and assigns group learning task, manages time and resources, and monitors students’ learning by see that students are on task and that the group process is working well. In cooperative learning, teacher is an expert on the subject and know the correct answer.  And at the end, the teacher  will produce a "right" or acceptable answer. Therefore, cooperative learning tends to be more teacher-centered. Cooperative learning may be appropriate for elementary student, junior high student.

Collaborative learning is a learning process where students work together to create knowledge which each member has their own understanding, or points of view and they will share together. The teacher’s responsibility is to become a member, along with students, of a community in search of knowledge. Collaborative learning can avoid having students become dependent on the teacher. Collaborative learning tend to be more student-centered.  Students have to be an autonomous learner. Collaborative learning is more appropriate for senior high students, and college students.

Saturday, April 21, 2012

Learning Theories

In education there are several theories that are used in the field. The three popular theories are Behaviorism, Cognitivism, and Constructivism.

1.    Behaviourism
In the nineteenth century, Charles Darwin published his well-known work, The Origin  of Species. Scientists soon realized that although humans may differ in many ways  from   other members   of  the   animal   kingdom,  they   do   (at   least   as   far   as   biological  aspects     are concerned)     share    many    similarities  with  them.    Studying    biological  processes   in   animals   could   therefore   shed   some   light   on   the   same processes   in  humans. Scientists interested in psychological processes soon followed the trend.

Around the turn of the twentieth century, Edward Thorndike attempted to develop an objective experimental method to study the behavior of cats and dogs. He designed  a so-called ‘puzzle box’ in which an animal was placed. Each puzzle box had a lever  or   mechanism   that   would   release   the   door   lock   if   the   lever   or mechanism   was  pressed. The animal had to learn to press the lever or mechanism to open the box. Thorndike noticed that he could measure animal intelligence by using this equipment.  He   was   particularly   interested   in   discovering   whether   animals   could   learn   through  imitation or observation.  He noticed that when an animal found itself in a problem situation it had encountered  before,   it   was   more   likely   to   perform   the   same   action   that   had   earlier   brought   the  desired reward. The   reward   of   being  freed   from   the   box   strengthened   the  association  between   the stimulus    (being   placed    in  a  closed   box)   and   an  appropriate    action.   Thorndike  concluded that rewards act to strengthen stimulus-response associations. This basic  principle    he   applied  to  humans     by  claiming    that  humans     develop    a  myriad   of  stimulus-response associations.

JB Watson continued the experimental work along the same lines. He was familiar  with    the classical     conditioning   work      of  the  Russian     physiologist,   Ivan   Pavlov.  Pavlov’s research on dogs revealed that certain behaviour (responses) in dogs could  be    made     into  a  habit.   Watson     believed    that  classical   conditioning    is  the   key  mechanism underlying all human learning.  Consider,   for   example,   the   child   who   refuses   to   go   to   school   in   the   morning.   Who  taught the child to behave in this way? Possibly, a bully scared the child and instilled  fear in him/her. The child linked going to school with the bully and therefore going to school   became   a   frightening   experience   to   him/her.   The   result   is   that   whenever  school time comes, the child becomes unruly and scared. Watson saw these ‘built in’ (conditioned) behaviours everywhere.

In the 1930s, BF Skinner did a lot of research on laboratory rats and   pigeons. He found that he could change the behaviour of his laboratory animals in startling ways just by the judicious use of rewards.  In one of his famous experiments he taught a pigeon   to   dance  by   using   rewards.   What   he   found   in   the   laboratory,   he   applied   to human learning. He     was   confident    that  the   mechanism      of  reinforcement      (reward)   of  responses (Operant      behaviour)    was    at  work   everywhere      in  all  types   of  learning.   Skinner (1996:6) wrote: “While we are awake, we act upon the environment constantly, and many of the consequences of our actions are reinforcing.” Contrary to Watson, who focused on the stimulus that produced a response, Skinner focused on the behaviour (or Operant) and how it was reinforced.

My opinion
     Behaviourism is a theory based on assumption that behaviors are acquired through conditioning and there are responses of the stimuli. Behaviourism describes learning happens in an observable change in behavior so, behavior is the product of conditioning. The behaviors are learned in the process. It uses reward and reinforcement. Behaviourism views learning as something that happens to a person, with the person being passive. The main role is the teacher which have to transfer the knowledge, and the learners need only sit quietly and listen to the teacher.  So, the learner will tend to be passive and they may not have a chance think about what they have known (their opinions).  The learner has a little responsibility concerning his/her own education because they uses low level processing skills to understand the material. And the interaction in the classroom is only between teacher and student. The teacher has the main and important  role (teacher-centered). 

The Relationship with ICT
In technology development, we know  the models of computer use. One of them is Tutor model. I think, tutor model, for example,  computer-assisted instruction (CAI) is recent example of behaviorism.  Why? Because the computer controls the learners by giving instruction (conditioning) and it functions as a tutor. The interaction is just between computer and learners. The learners is just as the receivers, so they they tend to be a passive learner because they are controlled by the computer. In computer as tutor, for instance, learners can answers questions provided by computer and then the computer can score the results of answers.

2.    Cognitivism
The cognitive view of learning, like the behaviourist view, sees knowledge as given  and absolute. Many of the information processing models of teaching and learning  are   based  on   the   cognitive   view   of   learning.   Also   note   that   some   of   the   theorists discussed   so   far   can   be   classified   as   either   behaviourist   or   cognitivist.   This   is   so because       of  the  close relationship between certain   of   the  ideas connected  to memorisation.

Gestalt Theory
The     Gestalt   theory    was   to  a   great   extent   propagated      by  Köhler,    Koffka   and Wertheimer
 Proximity:   this   means   that   we   tend   to   group   elements   according   to   their  nearness to one  another and the patterns that they form.  
Similarity:    this implies that we tend to group together items that are similar in  some respect. Obviously by drawing similarities learners are at the same time drawing distinctions between items.
Closure  :  which means that we tend to group items together if they seem to complete some entity.
Simplicity:  stronger   or   more   adequate   patterns   tend   to   dominate   weaker patterns   in   perception.   We   organise   items   into   simple   figures according   to symmetry, regularity and smoothness if they are dominant.
These principles are called the laws of organisation and are used in the context of explaining perception and problem-solving.

Jean   Piaget   (1896-1980)   was   a   psychologist   and   a   pioneer   in   the   study   of   child intelligence.   His   early   studies   in   biology,   and   specifically   evolution,    influenced   his approach to human learning. He believed that the human capacity to think and learn was     an   adaptive     feature    that   enabled     humans      to   deal   effectively    environment. Contrary to the behaviourists and gestalt psychologists, Piaget did not study animals, but small children. Piaget’s     research     in  developmental       psychology      centred    on   the  question     of  how knowledge   develops   in   the   mind.   Piaget   approached   the   problems   of   thinking   and learning by focusing on the mental and cognitive processes that make them possible. This focus became the defining element of the cognitivist theory. According to Piaget, children   shape   their   own   conceptions   of   reality   through   continuous   interaction   with their environment. Cognitive development therefore occurs as children adapt to their environment, thus building their sense of reality. Piaget     regarded     knowledge      growth     as  something      that   happens     continually    in  a sequential       process     consisting      of   logically   embedded         structures    (schemata) succeeding       one    another    throughout     an   individual’s    lifetime.   This   is  divided   into stages of development and children move from one stage to the next by maturation and exploration. Piaget identified the following developmental stages:
The   sensorimotor   stage:  For   the  first   year   and   a   half   to  two   years   of   life, infants are only aware of sensorimotor experiences. Thus they do not know  how things will react, and so are always experimenting-shaking things, putting them in their mouths, or throwing them. In this way, they learn to co-ordinate their physical movements. Their learning is mainly by trial and error.
The preoperational stage: This is a stage from around 18-24 months to 7   years,   when   children   can   think   about   things   in   symbolic   terms.   They   can pretend,   verbalise,   and   understand   past   and   future.   However,   cause-and- effect, time, comparison, and other complex ideas are still out of reach.The child is still not able to construct abstract ideas and to operate on them solely   in   the   mind.   The   child   works   with   the   concrete,   physical   situation   in  front of him/her. 
The concrete operational stage:  From 7-12 years, children gain new competencies in thinking and become involved in events outside of their lives. The child is finally able to start to conceptualise things after a great deal of  physical      experimentation        with    objects.    The    child   can     do   subtraction, multiplication, division, and addition of numbers, not just things. However, the ability to tackle a  problem    with   several    variables    in  a  systematic     way    is unusual at this stage.
The formal operational stage: From 12 years old and so on, learners are able to   think   about    abstract    relationships      (as   in  algebra),  understand  methodology,         formulate hypotheses, and think about possibilities    and  abstractions like justice.
Piaget     outlined     several    principles    for   building    cognitive    structures.    During     all developmental   stages,   the   child   experiences   his/her   environment   using   whatever mental maps he/she has constructed so far. If the experience is a repeat one, it fits easily   into   the   child’s   cognitive   structure   (that   is   it   is  assimilated  into   the   existing cognitive structure) so that the child maintains mental equilibrium. If the experience is   different   or   new,   the   child   loses   equilibrium   (hence  disequilibrium),   and   alters his/her cognitive structure to accommodate the new conditions. In this way, the child builds more and more adequate cognitive structures.   
My opinion      
Cognitivism is a theory that based on the thought process behind the behavior. Cognitivism describes how information is processed to produce learning. The assumption is humans are logical beings that make the choices that make the most sense to them. Contrary to behaviorism, the learner is being very active to involve in the learning process. They are not passive receivers of given conditions, so they can control their own learning. The role of teacher is as a facilitator which brings various learning experiences in learning situation which can impact learning outcomes.

The Relationship with ICT
The relationship with ICT we can see in the model of computer use, Tutee model or LOGO computer. In the tutee model, the role of computer as a partner which the learners teaches the computer. The  learners are challenged to create their own activities by programming the computer. The learners need to be creative using the computer.

3.    Constructivism
The     constructivist      view    of  learning     assumes       different    forms    just   like   the aforementioned theories.? In essence, constructivist theories see knowledge as a constructed entity. This view of knowledge contradicts the view that knowledge is given   and   absolute.   The   constructivist   approach   is   based   on   the   premise   that,   by reflecting on our experiences, we construct our own understanding of the world we live   in.   Thus   individuals   use   their   own   mental   constructs   to   make   sense   of   their experiences.

Lev     Vygotsky     (1896-1934),      a   Soviet    psychologist,     was    convinced      that   social interaction   plays   a   fundamental   role   in   the   development   of   cognition.   According   to him  culture  was   a   determinant   of   individual       development.   Humans   are   the   only species to have cultures, and every human child develops in the context of a culture. Therefore, human cognitive development is affected to a larger or lesser extent by the culture in which individuals are enmeshed, including family environments. According to Vygotsky, culture seems to make two kinds of contributions to children’s intellectual development. Firstly, children acquire much of the content of their thinking  (cognition)   from   it   and,   secondly,   they   acquire   the   processes   or   means   of   their thinking from it. In short, culture teaches children both what to think and how to think. In   this  way,    children   are   very   likely  to  model    their  behaviour     on   the  observed behaviour of their parents. Learning is therefore dependent on social interaction.
One   of   the   notable   aspects   of   learning   that   Vygotsky   highlighted   was   that   a   child learns   better   with   the   help   of   an   adult.   He   did   not   assign   much   importance   to   the stages   of   development   of   a   child   (like   Piaget   did),   but   was   more   interested   in   the potential   for   cognitive   development.   This,   he   believed,   is   limited   to   a   certain   time span which he called the ‘zone of proximal development’ (ZPD). At any given time in a child’s development, he/she will be more susceptible to certain new knowledge. Obviously, if new knowledge is not forthcoming then the child would have probably reached the highest point of his/her knowledge. In order for the child to increase his knowledge, then an adult (for example a teacher) would have to scaffold a child to new heights of knowledge in a particular domain.

Bruner’s theory linked to child development research as he worked with children in a manner similar to Piaget. Bruner identified the following three stages of development:
The enactive stage, in which the child understands the environment through
physical manipulation and handling of objects-holding, moving, touching, and biting.
The iconic stage, in which information is carried by imagery-visual memory is 
developed but the child still bases his/her decisions on sensory impressions.
The  symbolic  stage,   in   which   the  child  is   able  to   convey  meaning   through
symbols-he/she is able to understand and interpret idiomatic expressions (like
‘too many cooks spoil the broth’) and use formulas to solve problems.
Bruner believes that learning situations should be structured to enable the learner to learn.   He   recognises  the   futility   of   trying   to   know   everything,   but   insists   that   we should    all  acquire  a   rich  conceptual   framework     (the ‘bigger   picture’).  As  far   as teaching is concerned, the educator should try and encourage learners to discover principles by themselves and to develop the ‘big picture’.

My Opinion
Constructivism is the theory that describes learning to due to the construction of knowledge. The theory focuses on the understanding the information. Learners construct their  own perspective of the world, through individual experiences or learning experiences. Different with behaviorism theory which is more teacher-center, constructivism is more learner-centered. Although both cognitivists and constructivist view the learner as being actively involved in the learning process, the constuctivists look at the learner as more than just an active processor of information. Learners create or search their own meaning of knowledge. According to Constructivism, the learners work together or learn one another and not only in isolation from others to acquire the new information (collaborative learning).

The Relationship with ICT
The relationship between Constructivism with ICT is the model of computer use, computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL). CSCL enables learners to learn not only between student and the computer, but with others in the classroom or in other country because CSCL enables learners to connect with the Internet and learning happens both conventional and virtual learning. Learners must be an autonomous learners which create their own learning experience. They can explore their own knowledge or the world through this computer. They learn by collaboration.

The differences of behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism:
  •      The focus of learning:
     Behaviorism :is on conditioning
     Cognitivism : is on increasing meaning
     Constructivism : is on constructing meaning and problem solving
  •      Learning concept:
      Behaviorism : reinforcement
      Cognitivism : elaboration
      Constructivism : intrinsic motivation
  •      Centred on:
      Behaviorism : teacher
      Cognitivism : learner
      Constructivism : learner
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